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GXemul: Installing and running "guest OSes"

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General notes on running "guest OSes":

The emulator works well enough to run complete operating systems. These are often refered to as guest operating systems, in contrast to the host operating system which the emulator is running under.

The emulation, however, is not necessarily complete enough to support previously untested guest operating. In many cases, the emulated devices have been implemented "on demand" as required by a specific guest operating system, and trying to run another operating system (or even a different version of a supported one) will trigger new things that are not yet implemented in the emulator. This page lists specific versions that are known to work. What this usually means is:

  • A full installation from scratch should work (usually from a CD-ROM image or via the network).
  • Logging in to the installed guest OS after install.
  • Doing something non-trivial.

Printing "Hello world" is considered trivial, whereas e.g. building GXemul itself inside the emulated guest operating system is considered non-trivial.

Disk images:

Although it is possible to let a guest OS access real hardware, such as harddisks, it is much more flexible and attractive to simulate harddisks using files residing in the host's filesystem. See this section for details about how to use disk images.

While these files may look large (several GBs is common for hard disks), on Unix-like file systems, files may contain holes, which means that the disk image files do not actually use up all that space from the start, but rather grows only as data is written to it. To the guest operating system, the harddisk image looks and acts like a real disk.

Unsupported guest operating systems, or experimental install instructions:

In addition to the "working" guest operating systems listed above, you might find the following information interesting:

NOTE: Some of these sections may not be relevant to this specific release of GXemul, for example some of these modes may be legacy modes that worked before but not any longer, or are not yet working but could be in the future.

Version numbers:

The version numbers of the various operating systems were the latest versions that worked satisfactory with GXemul at the time this page was updated; if new versions have been released since then, they might work as well.

Some operating systems are listed with a version number less than what was available at the time of this GXemul release (e.g. NetBSD/prep). The reasons for this is usually one of the following:

  • incompleteness/bugs in GXemul's machine, device, and/or processor implementations, which the newer version of the guest operating system triggers, but not the older version, or
  • the newer guest operating system version would work, but the full installation procedure has not been verified.


Legacy emulation modes

Most of the emulation modes in GXemul have not yet been rewritten to use the new 0.6.x framework. These modes will still run, and are officially supported in the sense that they should work. However, since they do not use the new framework, they will not be developed further.

The long term goal is to rewrite as many of the legacy machines as possible into new implementations (using the new framework), but this will take time. Modes that cannot be rewritten for some reason (e.g. amount of work required is too large) will need to be removed sooner or later.

Modes that use the pre-0.6 framework are therefore marked LEGACY MODE.


NetBSD/pmax:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/pmax was the first guest OS that could be installed onto a disk image in GXemul. The device emulation of the DECstation 5000/200 is reasonably complete; it should be enough to emulate a networked X-windows-capable workstation.

        

To install NetBSD/pmax onto a harddisk image in the emulator, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that NetBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_pmax.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3000000
    
    
  2. Download a NetBSD CD-ROM iso image:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/6.1.4/NetBSD-6.1.4-pmax.iso
    
    
  3. Start the emulator like this:
    	gxemul -X -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d b:NetBSD-6.1.4-pmax.iso
    

If you do not want to use the graphical framebuffer during the install, you can skip the -X command line option. Remember to enter xterm instead of vt100 when asked about your terminal type, if you do this.

You can also add -Y 2 to the command line options, if you feel that the default framebuffer window is too large.

When the installation has finished, the following command should start NetBSD from the harddisk image:

	gxemul -X -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img
and log in as root. Type startx to start X windows.

Remove -X if you only want a serial console.

(It seems that NetBSD 6.1.4 needs the user to enter root disk name (sd0) when booting. I don't think that was necessary when booting earlier NetBSD versions in the emulator, so there has been some regression here.)


NetBSD/arc:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run NetBSD/arc on an emulated Acer PICA-61 in the emulator.

        

To install NetBSD/arc from a CDROM image onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that NetBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1000000
    
    
  2. Download a NetBSD/arc CDROM image, and the generic + ramdisk NetBSD/arc kernels:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.0.1/arccd-5.0.1.iso
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.1/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.1/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-RAMDISK.gz
    
    
  3. Start the emulator using this command line:
    	gxemul -x -e pica -d nbsd_arc.img -d b:arccd-5.0.1.iso netbsd-RAMDISK.gz
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real PICA-61. (Choose "Use entire disk" when doing the MBR partitioning, and choose to install from CD-ROM.)

    (Use -X if you feel more comfortable with a "graphical" text display.)

You can now use the generic NetBSD/arc kernel to boot from the harddisk image, using the following command:

	gxemul -x -e pica -d nbsd_arc.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz


NetBSD/hpcmips:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install NetBSD/hpcmips onto a disk image, on an an emulated MobilePro 770 or 800. (MobilePro 780 and 880 might work too, but I don't test those for every release of the emulator. They have unaligned framebuffers, and run a bit slower.)

            

These instructions show an example of how to install NetBSD/hpcmips on an emulated MobilePro 770:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that you will install NetBSD/hpcmips onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_hpcmips.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3000000
    
    
  2. Download the NetBSD/hpcmips 5.0.2 ISO image, a generic kernel, and the installer kernel:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.0.2/hpcmipscd-5.0.2.iso
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/hpcmips/installation/netbsd.gz
    
    

  3. Start the installation like this:
    	gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img -d b:hpcmipscd-5.0.2.iso netbsd.gz
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real MobilePro 770. (Install onto wd0, choose "Use entire disk" when doing the MBR partitioning, and choose to install from CD-ROM.)

(While it is possible to install and run NetBSD/hpcmips without the -X command line option (i.e. using serial console), NetBSD 4.0.1's default /etc/ttys file after a full install did not have /dev/console enabled, so you needed to edit /etc/ttys before you reboot after the install, to be able to log in. Whether this has changed after 4.0.1, I don't know.)

If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image. Use the following command line to boot the emulated hpcmips machine:

	gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz

When you have logged in as root, you can use startx to start X Windows, but there is no mouse support yet so only keyboard input is available. This makes it a bit akward to use X.


NetBSD/cobalt:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/cobalt is possible to install on an emulated Cobalt Cube.

        

The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/cobalt onto a disk image:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD/cobalt onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cobalt.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=2700000
    
    
  2. Download the generic kernel for Cobalt and the ISO image:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.1.1/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.1.1/cobaltcd-5.1.1.iso
    
    
  3. Start the installation like this:
      	gxemul -x -E cobalt -d nbsd_cobalt.img -d bd:cobaltcd-5.1.1.iso -j cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-RAMDISK
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real Cobalt. (Install onto wd0, choose "Use entire disk" when doing the MBR partitioning, and choose to install from CD-ROM device "wd1d".)

You should now be able to boot NetBSD/cobalt like this:

	gxemul -x -E cobalt -d nbsd_cobalt.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz


NetBSD/evbmips:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/evbmips can run in GXemul on an emulated Malta evaluation board, with a 5Kc (MIPS64) or 4Kc (MIPS32) processor. 5Kc is the default.

        

One way to install the NetBSD/evbmips distribution onto a disk image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.

The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbmips onto a disk image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:

  1. Download a NetBSD/pmax (DECstation) install RAMDISK kernel:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0.1/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    

  2. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_malta.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=700000
    
    
  3. Download the Malta kernel and the ISO image:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/evbmips/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.0.2/evbmips-mipselcd-5.0.2.iso
    
    

  4. Start the emulated DECstation machine like this:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_malta.img -d evbmips-mipselcd-5.0.2.iso netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    
    
  5. At the Terminal type? [vt100] prompt, type CTRL-B to simulate a CTRL-C sent to NetBSD/pmax. Then execute the following commands:

           
    newfs /dev/sd0c
    mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
    mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd0c /mnt2
    cd /mnt2; sh
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/[bcemt]*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    exit
    cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
    echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
    echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
    cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt
    

You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbmips using this command:

	gxemul -x -e malta -d nbsd_malta.img netbsd-MALTA.gz

NOTE: To select a 4Kc (MIPS32) CPU instead of the default 5Kc (MIPS64) CPU, add -C 4Kc to the command line. With current NetBSD design, however, there will be little or no difference in functionality, as NetBSD still runs in 32-bit mode on 64-bit MIPS CPUs. There are two things that differ:

  1. The dynamic translation core runs faster when emulating 32-bit processors, so -C 4Kc might make things go faster.
  2. 4Kc only has 16 TLB entries, whereas 5Kc has 48. This makes 4Kc emulation slower in general, because there are more TLB misses.

The installation instructions above create a filesystem without a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the generic kernel:

	root device (default wd0a): wd0c
	dump device (default wd0b):		(just press enter)
	file system (default generic):		(just press enter)
	init path (default /sbin/init):		(just press enter)


NetBSD/algor:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/algor can run in GXemul on an emulated Algorithmics P5064 evaluation board.

        

One way to install the NetBSD/algor distribution onto a disk image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.

The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/algor onto a disk image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:

  1. Download a NetBSD/pmax (DECstation) install RAMDISK kernel (NOTE: not 5.0.2!):
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0.1/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    

  2. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD/algor onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_algor.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=700000
    
    
  3. Download the P5064 Algor kernel and the install sets:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/kernel/netbsd-P5064.gz
    
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/base.tgz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/comp.tgz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/etc.tgz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/man.tgz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/misc.tgz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/algor/binary/sets/text.tgz
    
    
  4. Prepare an ISO image of the install sets:
    	mkisofs -U -o algor_files.iso base.tgz comp.tgz etc.tgz man.tgz misc.tgz text.tgz
    
    

  5. Start the emulated DECstation machine like this:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_algor.img -d algor_files.iso netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    
    
  6. At the Terminal type? [rcons] prompt, type CTRL-B to simulate a CTRL-C sent to NetBSD/pmax. Then execute the following commands:

           
    newfs /dev/sd0c
    mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
    mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd0c /mnt2
    cd /mnt2; sh
    for a in /mnt/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    exit
    cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
    echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
    echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
    cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt
    

You should now be able to boot NetBSD/algor using this command:

	gxemul -x -e p5064 -d nbsd_algor.img netbsd-P5064.gz

The installation instructions above create a filesystem without a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the generic kernel:

	root device (default wd0a): wd0c
	dump device (default wd0b):		(just press enter)
	file system (default generic):		(just press enter)
	init path (default /sbin/init):		(just press enter)


NetBSD/sgimips:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

        

NetBSD/sgimips can run in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32). However, GXemul does not yet emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have mailed Adaptec several times, asking for documentation, but never received any reply.) NetBSD can still run in the emulator, as long as it doesn't use SCSI.

For a simple test with the ramdisk/install kernel, try dowloading

	ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz

and run  gxemul -x -e o2 netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz.

It is possible to set up an environment for netbooting the emulated SGI machine off of another emulated machine. Performing this setup is quite time consuming, but necessary:

  1. First of all, the "nfs server" machine must be set up. This needs to have a 750 MB /tftpboot partition. Install NetBSD/pmax from CDROM. (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)

  2. Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server. Start up the emulated DECstation:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img
    
    and enter the following commands as root inside the emulator:

           
    echo hostname=server >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 >> /etc/resolv.conf
    echo 10.0.0.254 > /etc/mygate
    echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 > /etc/exports
    echo rpcbind=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo nfs_server=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo mountd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo bootparamd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" > /etc/bootparams
    echo "bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -d 4 -h 10.0.0.2" >> /etc/inetd.conf
    cat >> /etc/bootptab
    client:\
            :ht=ether:\
            :ha=102030000010:\
            :sm=255.0.0.0:\
            :lg=10.0.0.254:\
            :ip=10.0.0.1:\
            :rp=/tftpboot:
    (press CTRL-D)
    echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" > /etc/ethers
    echo 10.0.0.1 client > /etc/hosts
    reboot
    

  3. Download the files corresponding to a NetBSD/sgimips CD-ROM iso image, and the GENERIC and INSTALL kernels:
    	ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz
    	ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz
    
    	wget -np -l 0 -r ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/sgimips/binary/sets/
    	mkisofs -U -o sgimips.iso ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0
    
    
  4. Start the DECstation emulation again:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d sgimips.iso
    
    
    and extract the files from the sgimips CD-ROM image to the DECstation disk image:

           
    cd /tftpboot; mount /dev/cd0a /mnt
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/[bcegmt]*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 > /tftpboot/etc/fstab
    echo rc_configured=YES >> /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
    echo 10.0.0.254 >> /tftpboot/etc/mygate
    echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 >> /tftpboot/etc/resolv.conf
    echo rc_configured=YES >> /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
    dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=65536
    cd /; umount /mnt; halt
    

  5. Create a configuration file called config_client:
           
    !  Configuration file for running NetBSD/sgimips diskless with
    !  a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.
    
    net(
    	add_remote("localhost:12444")   ! the server
    	local_port(12445)               ! the client
    )
    
    machine(
    	name("client machine")
    	serial_nr(1)
    
            type("sgi")
            subtype("o2")
    
            load("netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz")
            ! load("netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz")
    )
    
    
    ... and another configuration file for the server, config_server:
           
    net(
    	local_port(12444)               ! the server
    	add_remote("localhost:12445")   ! the client
    )
    
    machine(
    	name("nfs server")
    	serial_nr(2)
    
            type("dec")
            subtype("5000/200")
    
            disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
    )
    
    
  6. Boot the "nfs server" and the NetBSD/sgimips "client machine" as two separate emulator instances:
    	in one xterm:
    	gxemul @config_server
    
    	and then, in another xterm:
    	gxemul @config_client
    
    
  7. In the NetBSD/sgimips window, choose "x: Exit Install System" in the installer's main menu, and then type:
    	ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254
    	mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt
    	cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt
    	halt
    
    Then, once the client machine has halted, log in as root on the server machine and type reboot.

  8. Once everything has been set up correctly, change netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz in config_client to netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz (the GENERIC kernel).

You might want to log in as root on the server machine, and run tcpdump -lnvv or similar, to see that what the client machine actually does on the network.

It should now be possible to boot NetBSD/sgimips using the NetBSD/pmax nfs server, using the following commands: (NOTE! Execute these two commands in separate xterms!)

	gxemul @config_server
	gxemul @config_client

When asked for "root device:" etc. on the client machine, enter the following values:

	root device: mec0
	dump device: 				(leave blank)
	file system (default generic): 		(leave blank)
	..
	init path (default /sbin/init):		(leave blank)
	Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh:	(leave blank)
	Terminal type? [unknown] xterm
	..
	# exit			(to leave the single-user shell)

Note: Netbooting like this is very slow, so you need a lot of patience. For example, when NetBSD says "nfs_boot: trying DHCP/BOOTP", there will be a long pause, even on a very fast host machine. The reason for this is mostly because the emulator doesn't deal with timing issues very well, but also because NetBSD tries IPv6 first, before falling back to IPv4.


NetBSD/cats:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run NetBSD/cats in GXemul.

        

To install NetBSD/cats onto a disk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that you will install NetBSD/cats onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3000000
    
    
  2. Download the NetBSD/cats ISO image and the generic and install kernels:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.0/catscd-5.0.iso
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    
    

  3. Start the installation like this:
    	gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img -d catscd-5.0.iso netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real CATS from CDROM.

Note that there are long delays during bootup.

Alternatively, to install from FTP, you can skip downloading the ISO, and start the install without -d catscd-5.0.iso. Suitable network settings are IP 10.0.0.1, gateway/default route 10.0.0.254, netmask 255.0.0.0, nameserver 10.0.0.254.

If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image. Use the following command line to boot the emulated CATS machine:

	gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz


NetBSD/evbarm:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/evbarm can run in GXemul on an emulated IQ80321 evaluation board.

        

It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/evbarm distribution onto a disk image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.

The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbarm onto a disk image, from an emulated CATS machine:

  1. Download a NetBSD/cats 3.1 ramdisk kernel:
    	wget ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.1/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    
    
  2. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD/evbarm onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_iq80321.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000
    
    
  3. Download an IQ80321 kernel with wdc support, and the 2.1 ISO image:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbarm/binary/kernel/netbsd-wd0-IQ80321.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/evbarmcd.iso
    
    

  4. Now let's extract the files from the CD-ROM image onto the IQ80321's disk image. Start the CATS machine using the following command line:
    	gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_iq80321.img -d evbarmcd.iso netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    
    
    Exit from the installer, and execute the following commands as root:

           
    
    disklabel -I -i wd0
        (enter suitable commands, e.g. a, 4.2BSD, 1c, 750M, b,
         swap, a, 200M, P, W, y, Q)
    newfs /dev/wd0a; mount /dev/wd0a /mnt2; cd /mnt2
    mount /dev/cd0a /mnt; sh
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/[bcegmt]*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    exit
    cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
    echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
    echo "/dev/wd0a / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
    echo "/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0" >> fstab
    cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; sync; halt
    

You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbarm using this command:

	gxemul -x -E iq80321 -d nbsd_iq80321.img netbsd-wd0-IQ80321.gz


NetBSD/netwinder:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to run NetBSD/netwinder in GXemul.

            

There is no INSTALL ramdisk kernel, so one way to install the NetBSD/netwinder distribution onto a disk image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine. The following instructions will let you install the NetBSD/netwinder distribution onto a disk image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:

  1. Download a NetBSD/pmax (DECstation) install RAMDISK kernel:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.1/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    

  2. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_netwinder.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000
    
    
  3. Download the generic kernel and the 3.1 ISO image:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.1/netwinder/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.1/netwindercd-3.1.iso
    
    

  4. Start the emulated DECstation machine like this:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_netwinder.img -d netwindercd-3.1.iso netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    
    
  5. At the Terminal type? [rcons] prompt, type CTRL-B to simulate a CTRL-C sent to NetBSD/pmax. Then execute the following commands:

           
    newfs /dev/sd0c
    mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
    mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd0c /mnt2
    cd /mnt2; sh
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    exit
    cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
    echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
    echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
    cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt
    

NetBSD/netwinder is now installed on the disk image. The following command line can be used to start NetBSD/netwinder:

	gxemul -X -E netwinder -d nbsd_netwinder.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz

This will result in a 1024x768 framebuffer. Add -Y2 to the command line if you want to scale it down to 512x384.

Note: The installation instructions above create a filesystem without a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the generic kernel:

	root device (default wd0a): wd0c
	dump device (default wd0b): (just press enter)
	file system (default generic):    (just press enter)
	init path (default /sbin/init):   (just press enter)

Known bugs/problems:

  • There is a long delay when starting up NetBSD/netwinder (several seconds even on a very fast host machine), so you need to be patient.
  • There is a minor bug in the keyboard device, so you need to press a key (any key) before typing wd0c.
  • When halting/rebooting NetBSD/netwinder, the emulator prints a message saying something about an internal error. This doesn't matter; ignore the message.


NetBSD/prep:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run NetBSD/prep 2.1 in GXemul on an emulated IBM 6050 (PowerPC) machine. (Newer versions of NetBSD/prep use the wdc controller in a way which isn't implemented in GXemul yet, or there are bugs in GXemul's PowerPC CPU emulation.)

        

To install NetBSD/prep onto a disk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that you will install NetBSD/prep onto:
        dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_prep.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1000000
    
    
  2. Download the NetBSD/prep 2.1 ISO image and the generic kernel:
        ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/prepcd.iso
        ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/prep/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz
    
    

  3. Start the installation like this:
        gxemul -X -e ibm6050 -d nbsd_prep.img -d rdb:prepcd.iso -j prep/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz
    
    

  4. Installation is a bit unsmooth, possibly due to bugs in GXemul, possibly due to bugs in NetBSD itself; others have been having problems on real hardware: http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-prep/2005/11/25/0004.html. Creating an MBR slice and a disklabel with sysinst bugs out, so some things have to be done manually:

    At "(I)nstall, (S)hell, or (H)alt", choose s.
    # fdisk -u wd0
    Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n] (just press ENTER)
    Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 0
    sysid: ... (just press ENTER)
    start: ... 1cyl
    size: ... (just press ENTER)
    Which partition do you want to change?: [none] (press ENTER)
    Should we write new partition table? [n] y
    # disklabel -I -i wd0
    partition> a
    Filesystem type [?] [unused]: 4.2BSD
    Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: 1c
    Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [0c, 0s, 0M]: 900M
    partition> b
    Filesystem type [?] [unused]: swap
    Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: a
    Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [0c, 0s, 0M]: $
    partition> W
    Label disk [n]? y
    partition> Q
    # newfs wd0a
    # sysinst
    Choose to install onto wd0. Choose "a: Edit the MBR partition table" when presented with that option.
    Choose the 'a' partition/slice, set the 'e' ("active") and 'f' ("install") fields to Yes, and then choose "x: Partition table OK".
    Choose "b: Use existing partition sizes" in the next menu.
    Select partition 'a' and press ENTER. Set field 'k' (mount point) to '/'.
    Get out of the partitioner by selecting "x: Partition sizes ok" twice.
    At "Write outside MBR partition? [n]:", just press ENTER.
    Install from CD-ROM, device wd1c.

If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image. Use the following command line to boot the emulated machine:

	gxemul -X -e ibm6050 -d nbsd_prep.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz

When asked which the root device is, type wd0 and just press ENTER to select the default values for dump device, file system type, and init path.


NetBSD/macppc:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run NetBSD/macppc in GXemul on an emulated generic PowerPC machine. No specific Machintosh model is emulated, but it is enough to for NetBSD to recognize it.

        

To install NetBSD/macppc onto a disk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that you will install NetBSD/macppc onto:
        dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_macppc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3000000
    
    
  2. Download the NetBSD/macppc 4.0.1 ISO image and a generic kernel:
        ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0.1/macppccd-4.0.1.iso
        ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0.1/macppc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.MP.gz
    
    

  3. Start the installation like this:
        gxemul -x -e g4 -d nbsd_macppc.img -d b:macppccd-4.0.1.iso -j macppc/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL
    
    
    and continue as you would do when installing NetBSD on a real machine.

If everything worked, NetBSD/macppc should now be installed on the disk image.

Use the following command line to boot the emulated machine:

	gxemul -x -e g4 -d nbsd_macppc.img netbsd-GENERIC.MP.gz

If asked about root device, enter wd0.


NetBSD/pmppc:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/pmppc can run in GXemul on an emulated Artesyn PM/PPC board. Currently, no SCSI or other disk controller is emulated for this machine type, but it is possible to run NetBSD with root-on-nfs.

        

These setup steps will let you run NetBSD/pmppc with root-on-nfs:

  1. First of all, the "nfs server" machine must be set up. This needs to have a 750 MB /tftpboot partition. Install NetBSD/pmax 3.1 from CDROM. (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)

  2. Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server. Start up the emulated DECstation:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img
    
    and enter the following commands as root inside the emulator:

           
    echo hostname=server >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 >> /etc/resolv.conf
    echo 10.0.0.254 > /etc/mygate
    echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 > /etc/exports
    echo rpcbind=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo nfs_server=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo mountd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    echo bootparamd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
    printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" > /etc/bootparams
    echo "bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -d 4 -h 10.0.0.2" >> /etc/inetd.conf
    cat >> /etc/bootptab
    client:\
            :ht=ether:\
            :ha=102030000010:\
            :sm=255.0.0.0:\
            :lg=10.0.0.254:\
            :ip=10.0.0.1:\
            :rp=/tftpboot:
    (press CTRL-D)
    echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" > /etc/ethers
    echo 10.0.0.1 client > /etc/hosts
    reboot
    

  3. Download the NetBSD/pmppc CD-ROM iso image, and the GENERIC kernel:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.1/pmppccd-3.1.iso
    	ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.1/pmppc/binary/kernel/netbsd-PMPPC.gz
    
    
  4. Start the DECstation emulation again:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d pmppccd-3.1.iso
    
    
    and extract the files from the PM/PPC CD-ROM image to the DECstation disk image:

           
    cd /tftpboot; mount /dev/cd0a /mnt
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/[bcemt]*; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 > /tftpboot/etc/fstab
    echo rc_configured=YES >> /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
    echo 10.0.0.254 >> /tftpboot/etc/mygate
    echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 >> /tftpboot/etc/resolv.conf
    echo rc_configured=YES >> /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
    dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=65536
    cd /tftpboot/dev; sh MAKEDEV all
    cd /; umount /mnt; halt
    

  5. Create a configuration file called config_client:
           
    !  Configuration file for running NetBSD/pmppc diskless with
    !  a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.
    
    net(
    	add_remote("localhost:12444")   ! the server
    	local_port(12445)               ! the client
    )
    
    machine(
    	name("client machine")
    	serial_nr(1)
    
            type("pmppc")
    
            load("netbsd-PMPPC.gz")
    )
    
    
    ... and another configuration file for the server, config_server:
           
    net(
    	local_port(12444)               ! the server
    	add_remote("localhost:12445")   ! the client
    )
    
    machine(
    	name("nfs server")
    	serial_nr(2)
    
            type("dec")
            subtype("5000/200")
    
            disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
    )
    
    

It should now be possible to boot NetBSD/pmppc using the NetBSD/pmax nfs server, using the following commands: (NOTE! Execute these two commands in separate xterms!)

	gxemul @config_server
	gxemul @config_client

You might want to log in as root on the server machine, and run tcpdump -lnvv or similar, to see that what the client machine actually does on the network.

When asked for "root device:" etc. on the client machine, enter the following values:

	root device: tlp0
	dump device: 				(leave blank)
	file system (default generic): 		(leave blank)
	..
	init path (default /sbin/init):		(leave blank)


NetBSD/landisk:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

NetBSD/landisk can run in GXemul.

        

The NetBSD/landisk distribution does not include any INSTALL kernel, so it must be installed using another (emulated) machine.

The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/landisk onto a disk image, using an emulated CATS machine:

  1. Download a NetBSD/cats install kernel:
    	ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0.1/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    

  2. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image that you will install NetBSD/landisk onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_landisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=900000
    
    

  3. Download NetBSD/landisk and make an iso image of it:
    	wget -np -l 0 -r ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.1/landisk
    	cp ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.1/landisk/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz .
    	mkisofs -U -o landisk.iso ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.1
    

  4. Start the emulated CATS machine like this:
    	gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_landisk.img -d landisk.iso netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz
    
    
  5. Exit the installer, then execute the following commands:

           
    disklabel -i -I wd0    (for example 'a', '4.2BSD', '1c',
        '700M', 'b', 'swap', '701M', '$', 'P', 'W', 'y', and 'Q')
    newfs /dev/wd0a
    mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
    mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/wd0a /mnt2
    cd /mnt2; sh
    ls -R /mnt
    for a in /mnt/*/binary/sets/[bcekmt]*.tgz; do ls -R /mnt > /dev/null; echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
    exit
    cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
    echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
    echo "/dev/wd0a / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
    echo "/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0" >> fstab
    cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt
    

NOTE: For some reason, reading the iso image created by mkisofs does not work as expected. The "ls -R /mnt" commands included above seem to make it work. (Yes, this is a serious bug, but I am not sure how to diagnose it.)

You should now be able to boot NetBSD/landisk using this command:

	gxemul -x -E landisk -d nbsd_landisk.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz


NetBSD/dreamcast:

Moved here.


OpenBSD/pmax:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

Installing OpenBSD/pmax is a bit harder than installing NetBSD/pmax. You should first read the section above on how to install NetBSD/pmax, before continuing here. If you have never installed OpenBSD on any architecture, then you need a great deal of patience to do this. If, on the other hand you are used to installing OpenBSD, then this should be no problem for you.

            

OpenBSD/pmax died at release 2.8 of OpenBSD, so you should be aware of the fact that this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD system.

Following these instructions might work. If not, then use common sense and imagination to modify them as you see fit.

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that OpenBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=900000000
    
    
  2. Download the entire pmax directory from the ftp server: (approx. 99 MB)
    	wget -r ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/
    
    
  3. Execute the following commands:

           
    mv ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/simpleroot28.fs.gz .
    gunzip simpleroot28.fs.gz
    chmod +w simpleroot28.fs		<--- make sure
    

  4. You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded. (I recommend using mkisofs for that purpose. If you don't already have mkisofs installed on your system, you need to install it in order to do this.)
    	mkisofs -o openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax
    	rm -rf ftp.se.openbsd.org      (this directory is not needed anymore)
    
    
  5. Start the emulator with all three (!) disk images:
    	gxemul -e 3max -d obsd_pmax.img -d b:simpleroot28.fs -j bsd -d c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso
    
    
    (If you add -X, you will run with the graphical framebuffer. This is REALLY slow because the console has to scroll a lot during the install. I don't recommend it.)

  6. Go on with the installation as you would do if you were installing on a real machine. If you are not used to the OpenBSD installer, then this will most likely be a very uncomfortable experience. Some important things to keep in mind are:
    • rz0 is the rootdisk you wish to install onto.
    • rz1 is the simpleroot image.
    • rz2 is the CDROM containing the "install sets".
    • When asked for the "root device?", enter rz1.
    • At "Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for sh:", press enter.
    • At the # prompt, do the following:
      	fsck /dev/rz1a        (and mark the filesystem as clean)
      	mount /dev/rz1a /
      	mkdir /kern
      	mkdir /mnt2
      	mount -t kernfs kern kern
      	./install
      
      
      and proceed with the install. Good luck. :-)
    • Answer "y" when asked if you wish to configure the network. (See the section about installing NetBSD/pmax for suitable network settings.)
    • Install from "c" (cdrom), choose "rz2" as the cdrom device, and "/" as the directory containing the install sets.

  7. For some unknown reason, the install script does not set the root password! The first time you boot up OpenBSD after the install, you need to go into single user mode and run passwd root to set the root password, or you will not be able to log in at all!
    	gxemul -e 3max -d obsd_pmax.img -d 2c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso -j bsd -o '-s'
    
    While you are at it, you might want to extract the X11 install sets as well, as the installer seems to ignore them too. (Perhaps due to a bug in the installer, perhaps because of the way I used mkisofs.)

    Execute the following commands in the emulator:

           
    fsck /dev/rz0a
    mount /
    passwd root
    
    cd /; mount -t cd9660 /dev/rz2c /mnt; sh
    for a in /mnt/[xX]*; do tar zxvf $a; done
    ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/Xcfbpmax /usr/X11R6/bin/X
    ln -s /dev/fb0 /dev/mouse
    echo /usr/X11R6/lib >> /etc/ld.so.conf
    ldconfig
    
    sync
    halt
    

NOTE: It is also possible to install via ftp instead of using a CDROM image. This is not much less awkward, you still need the simpleroot filesystem image, and you still have to manually add the X11 install sets and set the root password, and so on.

Once you have completed the installation procedure, the following command will let you boot from the new rootdisk image:

	gxemul -e 3max -X -o '-aN' -d obsd_pmax.img -j bsd

(Normally, you would be asked about which root device to use (rz0), but using -o '-aN' supresses that.)

When asked for which terminal type to use, when logging in as root, enter rcons if you are using the graphical framebuffer, vt100 for text-mode.
Use startx to start X windows.


OpenBSD/cats:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run OpenBSD/cats in GXemul. Unfortunately, "The OpenBSD/cats port has been discontinued after the 4.0 release." according to http://www.openbsd.org/cats.html, but 4.0 should run fine.

        

To install OpenBSD/cats onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that OpenBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1900000
    
    
  2. Download the entire cats directory from the ftp server:
    	wget -np -l 0 -r ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.0/cats/
    	cp ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.0/cats/bsd .
    	cp ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.0/cats/bsd.rd .
    
    
    (Replace ftp.se.openbsd.org with a server closer to you, for increased download speed.)

  3. You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded. (I recommend using mkisofs for that purpose. If you don't already have mkisofs installed on your system, you need to install it in order to do this.)
    	mkisofs -allow-lowercase -o openbsd_cats_4.0.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/
    	rm -rf ftp.se.openbsd.org      (this directory is not needed anymore)
    
    
  4. Start the emulator using this command line:
    	gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img -d openbsd_cats_4.0.iso bsd.rd
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD on a real CATS. (Install onto wd0, don't configure the network, install from CD.)

(Although it is possible to configure the network, IPv4 address 10.0.0.1, netmask 255.0.0.0, gateway/default route 10.0.0.254, and nameserver 10.0.0.254, the userland NAT-like networking layer is not stable enough yet to support a full install via ftp.)

NOTE: Make sure that you sync and reboot correctly once the installation is finished, or the /dev nodes may not have been written correctly to disk.

Once the install has finished, the following command should let you boot from the harddisk image:

	gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img bsd


OpenBSD/landisk:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to install and run OpenBSD/landisk in GXemul.

                 

To install OpenBSD/landisk onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that OpenBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_landisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=2000000
    
    
  2. Download the entire landisk directory from the ftp server:
    	wget -np -l 0 -r ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/5.4/landisk/
    	cp ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/5.4/landisk/bsd .
    	cp ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/5.4/landisk/bsd.rd .
    
    
    (Replace ftp.se.openbsd.org with a server closer to you, for increased download speed.)

  3. You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded. (I recommend using mkisofs for that purpose. If you don't already have mkisofs installed on your system, you need to install it in order to do this.)
    	mkisofs -U -o openbsd_landisk_5.4.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/
    	rm -rf ftp.se.openbsd.org      # this directory is not needed anymore
    
    
  4. Start the emulator using this command line:
    	gxemul -x -E landisk -d obsd_landisk.img -d d:openbsd_landisk_5.4.iso bsd.rd
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD on a real landisk. The following hints are useful to get you through the installation:
    • Terminal type = xterm
    • Do not configure the network. (The Realtek NIC found in the Landisk machine is not implemented yet in the emulator.)
    • root disk = wd0 (the disk to install onto)
    • Use the entire disk for OpenBSD (whole)
    • Accept the auto-layout (one big root partition (a) and a small swap partition (b). c is the entire disk).
    • Location of sets = disk
    • Is the disk partition already mounted = no
    • Disk containing the install media = wd1
    • Pathname to the sets = 5.4/landisk

Once the install has finished, the following command should let you boot from the disk image:

	gxemul -x -E landisk -d obsd_landisk.img bsd

Note: Generating ssh keys on the first bootup is extremely time consuming.

As with most emulation modes in GXemul, the NIC in this machine is not emulated yet. If you want to transfer files to/from the emulated landisk machine, see this chapter in the documentation.


OpenBSD/mvme88k:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to run OpenBSD/mvme88k on an emulated Motorola MVME187 machine in the emulator.

To install OpenBSD/mvme88k onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these instructions:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that OpenBSD installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_mvme88k.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1900000
    
    
  2. Download the entire mvme88k directory from the ftp server:
    	wget -np -l 0 -r ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.5/mvme88k/
    
    
  3. You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded. (I recommend using mkisofs for that purpose. If you don't already have mkisofs installed on your system, you need to install it in order to do this.)
    	mkisofs -o openbsd_mvme88k_4.5.iso -U ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/
    
    
  4. Copy away the kernel, we'll need it later. But remove the rest of the downloaded tree.
    	cp ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.5/mvme88k/bsd .
    	rm -rf ftp.se.openbsd.org
    
  5. Start the emulator using this command line:
    	gxemul -e mvme187old -d obsd_mvme88k.img -d b:openbsd_mvme88k_4.5.iso -j 4.5/mvme88k/bsd.rd
    
    
    and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD on a real MVME187. There is a problem with finding the filesystem on the CDROM, since there is no disklabel [and/or because the emulator perhaps does not simulate CDROM TOCs well enough], but it's possible to mount the filesystem using manual intervention. Here is an example (from 4.4) of what an install can look like: (user input in blue italic)
    	CPU0 is associated to 2 MC88200 CMMUs
    	Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
    		The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
    	Copyright (c) 1995-2008 OpenBSD. All rights reserved.  http://www.OpenBSD.org
    
    	OpenBSD 4.4 (RAMDISK) #19: Sun Aug 10 21:03:44 GMT 2008
    	    root@arzon.gentiane.org:/usr/src/sys/arch/mvme88k/compile/RAMDISK
    	real mem = 67108864 (64MB)
    	avail mem = 56791040 (54MB)
    	mainbus0 at root: Motorola MVME187, 33MHz
    	cpu0: M88100 rev 0x3, 2 CMMU
    	cpu0: M88200 (16K) rev 0x9, full Icache, M88200 (16K) rev 0x9, full Dcache
    	pcctwo0 at mainbus0 addr 0xfff00000: rev 0
    	nvram0 at pcctwo0 offset 0xc0000: MK48T08
    	cl0 at pcctwo0 offset 0x45000 ipl 3: console
    	osiop0 at pcctwo0 offset 0x47000 ipl 2: NCR53C710 rev 2, 66MHz
    	scsibus0 at osiop0: 8 targets, initiator 7
    	osiop0: target 0 ignored sync request
    	osiop0: target 0 now using 8 bit asynch xfers
    	sd0 at scsibus0 targ 0 lun 0:  SCSI2 0/direct fixed
    	sd0: 1855MB, 1855 cyl, 16 head, 128 sec, 512 bytes/sec, 3800003 sec total
    	osiop0: target 1 ignored sync request
    	osiop0: target 1 now using 8 bit asynch xfers
    	cd0 at scsibus0 targ 1 lun 0:  SCSI2 5/cdrom removable
    	vme0 at pcctwo0 offset 0x40000
    	vme0: using BUG parameters
    	vme0: vme to cpu irq level 1:1
    	vmes0 at vme0
    	rd0: fixed, 4096 blocks
    	boot device: 
    	root on rd0a swap on rd0b dump on rd0b
    	WARNING: clock gained 138 days -- CHECK AND RESET THE DATE!
    	erase ^?, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C, status ^T
    	(I)nstall, (U)pgrade or (S)hell? i
    
    	Welcome to the OpenBSD/mvme88k 4.4 install program.
    
    	This program will help you install OpenBSD. At any prompt except password
    	prompts you can escape to a shell by typing '!'. Default answers are shown
    	in []'s and are selected by pressing RETURN.  At any time you can exit this
    	program by pressing Control-C, but exiting during an install can leave your
    	system in an inconsistent state.
    
    	Terminal type? [vt100] xterm
    
    	IS YOUR DATA BACKED UP? As with anything that modifies disk contents, this
    	program can cause SIGNIFICANT data loss.
    
    	It is often helpful to have the installation notes handy. For complex disk
    	configurations, relevant disk hardware manuals and a calculator are useful.
    
    	Proceed with install? [no] yes
    	Cool! Let's get to it.
    
    	You will now initialize the disk(s) that OpenBSD will use. To enable all
    	available security features you should configure the disk(s) to allow the
    	creation of separate filesystems for /, /tmp, /var, /usr, and /home.
    
    	Available disks are: sd0.
    	Which one is the root disk? (or 'done') [sd0] sd0
    	osiop0: target 0 ignored sync request
    	osiop0: target 0 now using 8 bit asynch xfers
    	Initial label editor (enter '?' for help at any prompt)
    	> a a
    	offset: [0] 63
    	size: [3799940] 3500000
    	FS type: [4.2BSD] 
    	mount point: [none] /
    	> a b
    	offset: [3500063] 
    	size: [299940] 
    	FS type: [swap] 
    	> w
    	> q
    	No label changes.
    	No more disks to initialize.
    
    	OpenBSD filesystems:
    	sd0a /
    
    	The next step *DESTROYS* all existing data on these partitions!
    	Are you really sure that you're ready to proceed? [no] yes
    	/dev/rsd0a: 1709.0MB in 3500000 sectors of 512 bytes
    	9 cylinder groups of 202.47MB, 12958 blocks, 25984 inodes each
    	/dev/sd0a on /mnt type ffs (rw, asynchronous, local, ctime=Thu Jan  1 16:29:57 2009)
    
    	System hostname? (short form, e.g. 'foo') test
    	Configure the network? [yes] no
    	Password for root account? (will not echo) 
    	Password for root account? (again) 
    
    	Let's install the sets!
    	Location of sets? (cd disk ftp http nfs or 'done') [cd] disk
    	Is the disk partition already mounted? [no] !mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0c /mnt2
    	osiop0: target 1 ignored sync request
    	osiop0: target 1 now using 8 bit asynch xfers
    	Is the disk partition already mounted? [no] yes
    	Pathname to the sets? (or 'done') [4.4/mvme88k] /mnt2/4.4/mvme88k
    
    	Select sets by entering a set name, a file name pattern or 'all'. De-select
    	sets by prepending a '-' to the set name, file name pattern or 'all'. Selected
    	sets are labelled '[X]'.
    
    	        [X] bsd
    	        [X] bsd.rd
    	        [ ] bsd.mp
    	        [X] base44.tgz
    	        [X] etc44.tgz
    	        [X] misc44.tgz
    	        [X] comp44.tgz
    	        [X] man44.tgz
    	        [X] game44.tgz
    	        [ ] xbase44.tgz
    	        [ ] xetc44.tgz
    	        [ ] xshare44.tgz
    	        [ ] xfont44.tgz
    	        [ ] xserv44.tgz
    	Set name? (or 'done') [bsd.mp] done
    	Ready to install sets? [yes] yes
    	Getting bsd ...
    	100% |**************************************************|  2329 KB    01:21    
    	Getting bsd.rd ...
    	100% |**************************************************|  3150 KB    01:48    
    	Getting base44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************| 87686 KB    11:56    
    	Getting etc44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************|   629 KB    00:14    
    	Getting misc44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************|  2866 KB    00:37    
    	Getting comp44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************| 38869 KB    06:19    
    	Getting man44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************|  6967 KB    01:50    
    	Getting game44.tgz ...
    	100% |**************************************************|  7037 KB    01:16    
    	Location of sets? (cd disk ftp http nfs or 'done') [done] done
    	Start sshd(8) by default? [yes] yes
    	Start ntpd(8) by default? [no] no
    	Saving configuration files...done.
    	Generating initial host.random file...done.
    	What timezone are you in? ('?' for list) [Canada/Mountain] Europe/Stockholm
    	Setting local timezone to 'Europe/Stockholm'...done.
    	Making all device nodes...done.
    	Installing boot block...
    	boot: /mnt/boot
    	proto: /mnt/usr/mdec/bootxx
    	device: /dev/rsd0a
    	cdevice: /dev/rsd0c
    	modifying vid.
    	/mnt/usr/mdec/bootxx: entry point 0x9f0000
    	proto bootblock size 5120
    	room for 64 filesystem blocks at 0x9f1198
    	Will load 2 blocks of size 16384 each.
    	0: 17696
    	1: 17728
    
    	CONGRATULATIONS! Your OpenBSD install has been successfully completed!
    	To boot the new system, enter halt at the command prompt. Once the
    	system has halted, reset the machine and boot from the disk.
    	# umount /mnt
    	# halt
    
    

Once the install has finished, the following command should let you boot from the harddisk image:

	gxemul -e mvme187old -d obsd_mvme88k.img bsd

When asked about root disk, enter sd0.

No NIC has been implemented yet for mvme187, so there is no network connectivity from within the guest OS.


HelenOS:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

HelenOS can run in GXemul's testarm and oldtestmips machine modes.

To run HelenOS for ARM in GXemul:

  1. Download the HelenOS kernel:
    	http://www.helenos.org/releases/HelenOS-0.4.0-arm32-gxemul.boot
      
  2. Start GXemul using the following command line:
      	gxemul -X -E testarm HelenOS-0.4.0-arm32-gxemul.boot
      

To run HelenOS for MIPS in GXemul:

  1. Download the HelenOS kernel:
    	http://www.helenos.org/releases/HelenOS-0.4.0-mips32-gxemul.boot
      
  2. Start GXemul using the following command line:
      	gxemul -X -E oldtestmips -C 5Kc HelenOS-0.4.0-mips32-gxemul.boot
      
    (Note the -C 5Kc option. HelenOS depends on the fact that the MIPS rdhwr instruction should trigger an 'invalid opcode' exception, and the default oldtestmips CPU (5KE) does not treat this as an invalid opcode. It is valid, but not yet implemented.)

Once the kernel has booted, you can press e.g. F3 to get to the command line shell, or F12 + Enter to enter the kernel console.


Ultrix/RISC:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

Ultrix 4.x can run in GXemul on an emulated DECstation 5000/200. (Ultrix was the native OS for these machines, but NetBSD/pmax is also usable.)

            

The following instructions should let you install Ultrix onto a disk image:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that Ultrix installs itself onto:
            dd if=/dev/zero of=rootdisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=800000
    
    
  2. Place your Ultrix installation media in your CDROM drive. (On FreeBSD and similar systems, it is called /dev/cd0c. Replace that with the name of your CDROM drive, or the name of a .iso image file.) Then, start the emulator like this:
            gxemul -X -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d bc:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix
    
    
  3. Once the first stage of the installation is done (restoring the root filesystem), you need to restart the emulator, booting from the new rootdisk, to continue the installation process. This is done by removing the bootflag ('b') from the second diskimage argument:
            gxemul -X -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d c:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix
    
    

When the installation is completed, the following command should start Ultrix from the harddisk image:

        gxemul -X -e 3max -j vmunix -d rootdisk.img

If you have a very fast host machine, you might experience a weird timer related bug, which makes it impossible to logon to the system. It is triggered when the emulation goes faster than any real DECstation machine was capable of running. A temporary workaround is to add -I33000000 to fix the emulated clock speed to 33 million instructions per emulated second.

If the workaround above doesn't work, you can also start up other processes on the host, apart from the emulator, so that the emulator runs more slowly. This is an ugly workaround, but seems to work. Once you have logged in into Ultrix, you can kill the extra processes.

You can experiment with adding -Z2 (for emulating a dual-headed workstation) or even -Z3 (tripple-headed), and also the -Y2 option for scaling down the framebuffer windows by a factor 2x2. There is also a -z option for supplying names of X11 displays to use. The following example starts Ultrix on an emulated tripple-headed workstation, on three different displays (remote1:0.0, localhost:0.0, and remote2:0.0), using no scaledown:

        gxemul -N -e 3max -jgenvmunix -d rootdisk.img \
            -XZ3 -z remote1:0.0 -z localhost:0.0 -z remote2:0.0

The photo below shows a single Ultrix session running tripple-headed in GXemul on an Alpha 21164PC, with displays on a Sun Ultra1 (to the left), on the Alpha itself (in the middle), and on an HP700/RX X-terminal (8-bit color depth, running off the Alpha) to the right.

        

The X11 displays may differ in bit depth and endianness. Unfortunately, there is no way yet to set the scaledown factor on a per-window basis, so the scaledown factor affects all windows.

(If you didn't use -Zn during the installation, and compiled your own /vmunix, then it will not contain support for multiple graphics cards. To overcome this problem, use the generic kernel, -j genvmunix, whenever you are running the emulator with a different setup than the one you used when Ultrix was installed.)

A note for the historically interested: OSF/1 for MIPS was quite similar to Ultrix, so that is possible to run as well. If you are unsuccessful in installing Ultrix or OSF/1 directly in the emulator, you can always install it on your real machine onto a real SCSI disk, and then copy the contents of that SCSI disk into a file (using dd(1)), and use that file as a disk image file in the emulator.


Sprite for DECstation:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

Sprite was a research operating system at the University of Berkeley. A copy of a Sprite harddisk image for a DECstation 5000/200 is still available. If you want to find out more about Sprite in general, read http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html.

            

The following instructions should let you run Sprite in the emulator:

  1. Download the Sprite harddisk image:
    	ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/os/cluster/Sprite/ds5000.bt
    	83973120 bytes, MD5 = ec84eeeb20fe77b758370d5e312e4a5e
    

    (A big thank you to José R. Valverde for maintaining the OS archives at ftp.embnet.org.)

  2. Start the emulator with the following command line:
    	gxemul -X -e 3max -M128 -d ds5000.bt -j vmsprite -o ''
    
    

The first time you boot up with the disk image, you will be asked a number of questions regarding network settings. If you feel like entering correct values, then you should use the following:

    Your machine's Ethernet address:    10:20:30:00:00:10
    Your machine's IP:                  10.0.0.1
    Subnet mask:                        0xff000000
    Gateway's Ethernet address:         60:50:40:30:20:10
    Gateway's IP:                       10.0.0.254

Unfortunately, at the end of ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/os/cluster/Sprite/boot.txt, the following sad statement can be found:

    The bootable Sprite image is meant to be a demonstration of Sprite, not
    a robust Sprite system.  There are several missing things, such as 
    floating point and network support.

Once you are logged in as root, running xinit will start the X11 environment.


Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation:

[Note: This is a LEGACY MODE.]

It is possible to run Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation in the emulator, on an emulated 5000/200 ("3max"). However, just choosing any Linux/DECstation kernel at random for the installation will not work.

  • Linux 2.4/DECstation DZ serial console output doesn't work too well in GXemul. Linux oopses randomly, which may be due to bugs in GXemul, but may also be due to bugs in the serial controller code in Linux. (The speed at which serial interrupts are generated can be lowered with the -U command line option, but it only reduces the risk, it doesn't take away the oopses completely.)
  • The Linux 2.6/DECstation DZ serial console driver doesn't work at all in the emulator, and I'm not really sure it would work on a real 5000/200 either. Hopefully this will be fixed in Linux in the future.
  • To get around the serial console problem, the obvious solution is to use a graphical framebuffer instead. Old Debian install kernels supported the graphical framebuffer on the 3max, but not the keyboard. (This has been fixed now, it seems.)
  • For quite some time, the MIPS linux cvs tree has had support for the framebuffer and keyboard, but it did not include Debian's patches for networking, which made it unusable for network installs. (Possibly fixed now.)
  • The kernel has to be for 5000/200. This rules out using the default kernel on netinst ISO images provided by Debian. These ISO images boot directly into a kernel which is meant for a different DECstation model.
  • The kernel has to have an initrd which more or less matches the version of Debian that will be installed.

Luckily, a precompiled install kernel has been made available by David Muse, for Debian for R3000 DECstations, which has support for framebuffer, keyboard, and networking, which works pretty well. Thanks David. :-)

The following steps should let you install Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation onto a harddisk image in the emulator:

  1. Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk that Debian installs itself onto:
    	dd if=/dev/zero of=debian_pmax.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=6000000
    
    
  2. Download David Muse' install kernel, and a Debian Netinstall CD-ROM:
    	http://www.firstworks.com/mips-linux-2.4.31/vmlinux-2.4.31
    	http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/archive/3.1_r6a/mipsel/iso-cd/debian-31r6a-mipsel-netinst.iso
    
    	MD5 (vmlinux-2.4.31) = c88dc0a26b91e3646698179c18e8169b
    	MD5 (debian-31r6a-mipsel-netinst.iso) = db1bf2f8e5b24f820f37034ec1d20bdc
    

  3. Start the installation like this:
    	gxemul -X -e3max -d debian_pmax.img -d debian-31r6a-mipsel-netinst.iso vmlinux-2.4.31
    

    If everything goes well, you will see Linux' boot messages, and then arrive at the language chooser.

                                       

    There will be a warning about the keyboard layout. Don't mind this. Continue, and then select Detect and mount CD-ROM in the next menu.

                                       

    There will also be a warning about lack of loadable modules. Don't mind this either, continue anyway by choosing Yes.

    When you reach the network configuration part of the install, choose Configure network manually and enter the following values:

    	IP address:                 10.0.0.1
    	Netmask:                    255.0.0.0
    	Gateway:                    10.0.0.254
    	Name server addresses:      10.0.0.254
    
    

    Choose Erase entire disk in the partitioner.

    Wait for the base system to be installed. This takes almost forever, so you can go fetch several Jolts or cups of coffee in the meanwhile.

                                       

    Congratulations! The first phase of the installation is now completed. Reboot using the following command line:

    	gxemul -X -e3max -o 'root=/dev/sda1' -d debian_pmax.img vmlinux-2.4.31
    
    

    The post-install step takes quite some time as well. A perfect opportunity for more coffee.

    When asked about whether the hardware clock is set to GMT or not, answer Yes.

    When asked about "Apt configuration", choose http as the method to use for accessing the Debian archive.

                              

    Downloading the packages takes almost forever. Be patient.

    Congratulations (again)! You are now fully done with the installation.


Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation is now installed and ready to be used. Use this command to boot from the installed disk image:

	gxemul -X -e3max -o 'root=/dev/sda1' -d debian_pmax.img vmlinux-2.4.31